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Effervescent excipients are often used with acidic agents, causing a reaction that produces carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide causes the effervescent powder to fizz. Effervescent excipients are widely used to deliver medications containing antacids, painkillers, cough medicines or cold medicines. They are fast dissolving, stable, convenient and easy to carry. Effervescent agents are composed of soluble organic acids and alkali metal carbonates.
The commonly used acid sources for effervescent tablets are citric acid and tartaric acid.
Citric acid is the most widely used acid source for effervescent tablets, which is suitable for all kinds of effervescent tablets. Citric acid is easily soluble in water, good taste, but has strong hygroscopicity, in 65% to 75% relative humidity can absorb a lot of water, production and storage process, often causing sticky punch, particles difficult to dry, easy to rise tablets and other problems. Therefore, the production should be controlled in the workshop temperature (18-20)℃, humidity below 30%; storage should be a good moisture-proof container with airtightness.
The dosage of citric acid has no special regulations, generally the effervescence time is within 5 min. The best molar ratio of citric acid to sodium bicarbonate is 0.76:1, and the fastest molar ratio of dissolution is 0.6:1. The amount of acid often exceeds the theoretical amount, in order to facilitate the stability and palatability.
Tartaric acid is used as an acidifier, flavor modifier, complexing agent, antioxidant synergist and effervescent agent in pharmaceuticals. Tartaric acid is more acidic than citric acid and is easily soluble in water, making it an excellent effervescent acidifying agent. With tartaric acid as effervescent acidifier, the effervescent strength is large and the hygroscopicity is small, which is convenient for production operation. Tartaric acid is easy to produce precipitation with many minerals, so the oral effervescent tablets made of tartaric acid are often cloudy in tap water or mineral water, which does not affect the efficacy of the drug but affects the clarity, and generally need to add color to cover.