Enzymosomes are promising therapeutic agents due to their specific substrate selectivity and unparalleled reaction efficiency. The inherent immunogenicity of enzymes can be overcome by encapsulating them into certain biocompatible and biodegradable drug carriers. The use of enzymesomes in a rational manner can enhance therapeutic efficacy and reduce side effects. CD Formulation is dedicated to the discovery and design development of drug delivery systems, and we are confident that we can provide the best service and products to our customers around the world.
Enzymesomes are part of a vesicular drug delivery system, enzymo refers to enzymes and some refers to cellular, these are liposomal structures designed to provide a small biological environment in which enzymes are covalently immobilized or coupled to the surface of the liposome. Most catalytic enzymes are useful for enhancing the effective activity of antitumor drugs; such enzymes are alkaline phosphatases, carboxypeptidases, β-glucosidases, and β-lactamases. Different strategies can be used to improve carrier-mediated delivery of therapeutic proteins, for example: incorporation into polymeric carriers, incorporation into the aqueous space of lipid, detergent, or lipid-detergent vesicles, or incorporation of hydrophobized ones into the lipid bilayer of vesicles. A strategy not usually used for therapeutic enzymes. It is attached to the outer surface of the liposome and uses techniques developed for antibodies.
CD Formulation offers a comprehensive drug delivery development platform, available as individual service modules or as a full service. We tailor our services to develop high quality enzymosomes-based drug delivery services to meet our clients' needs. Our expert scientists will do their best to meet each client's requirements.
Along with drug delivery development services for enzymes, we will provide you with a series of characterization services such as physicochemical characterization of the enzymes to facilitate analysis of the state of the enzymes before and after drug delivery.
Physicochemical characterization of the final drug delivery enzymosomes. We can test the physicochemical state, size and size distribution, surface properties of nanoparticles, shape of nanoparticles, presence of additional colloidal structures and drug localization (nanoparticle core, interfacial additional structures, precipitated drug) of the enzymosomes.
Size and surface properties are the most important properties of nanoparticles, as they are the main determinants of the performance of drug carrier systems in vivo. The most commonly used method for colloidal particle size determination is photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), but methods based on static light scattering can provide additional information about the size distribution of particles in the μm range.
Photon correlation spectroscopy - also known as dynamic light scattering (DLS) or quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) is a reliable and fast method for size determination in the colloidal range (from about 5 nm to 1 µm). In PCS, the intensity fluctuations of the scattered light due to particle motion are measured on a time-dependent basis. The particle diameter can be calculated from the Storrs-Einstein equation by means of the diffusion coefficient of the particles in the measurement fluid.
Information about the surface charge of nanoparticles can be derived from zeta potential measurements. Since the electrostatic force increases the particle repulsion, a sufficiently high zeta potential can improve the stability of electrostatically stabilized nanoparticles. However, this rule cannot be strictly applied to formulations stabilized with polymers, leading to spatial stabilization.
Drug-loaded zymosomes can be administered in an animal model, and the data collected later at multiple time points allow for a complete pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis of the nanodrug in vivo. In turn, the desired parameters including drug concentration over time, area under the curve, elimination half-life, clearance and time to maximum concentration are obtained.