Ointments

The ointments is a kind of viscous semi-solid preparation, which is locally used on various body surfaces,primarily to the skin and also to mucous membranes. Ointments can be classified as medicated or non-medicated. Generally, medicated ointments are used to treat infection, inflammation and pruritus, while non-medical ointments are used as protectants, emollients or lubricants. The ointments are generally composed of ointment bases containing a high concentration (usually 50% w / W) of dispersed drugs, and they can divide into hydrophobic ointments, water-emulsifying ointments and hydrophilic ointments.

OintmentsFig.1 Ointments

The team of CD Formulation is leading experts in all aspects of pharmaceutical formulation development and dosage form optimization, we can accord the characteristics of the API and the development goals of the customers to design the formulation of ointments. CD Formulation can provide you with one-stop services to meet your needs of ointments.

Ointments are Prepared by Four General Methods

  • Fusion method
  • Trituration method
  • Chemical reaction method
  • Emulsification method

Basic Raw Materials Used in The Development of Various Ointments

  • Hydrocarbon bases: liquid paraffin (mineral oil), microcrystalline wax, hard paraffin, and soft paraffin.
  • Absorption bases (anhydrous and water in oil type): beeswax and wool fat.
  • Water removable bases (oil in water type): water in oil emulsions and non-emulsified bases.
  • Water soluble bases: macrogols 200, 300, 400.

The Process of Developing Ointments

A typical manufacturing process of ointments can break down into four individual operations:

Preparation of the oil phase: flake/powder ingredients are dispersed into mineral oil or silicone oil, and some ingredients may be required to melt by heating.

Hydration of aqueous phase ingredients: emulsifiers, thickeners, and stabilizers are dispersed in water in another container and heated to accelerate hydration.

Forming the emulsion: the two phases are blended under vigorous agitation to form the emulsion.

Dispersion of the active ingredient: active ingredients usually only account for a small proportion of the formulation; they must be effectively dispersed to maximize product effectiveness.

Ointments

How to Contact Us?

If you have a requirement about ointments services, please contact us by phone or email, our colleagues will reply to you within three working days.

References

  1. Sharadha M, Gowda D V, Gupta V, et al. An Overview on Topical Drug Delivery System–Updated Review[J]. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2020, 11(1): 368-385.
  2. Mahalingam R, Li X, Jasti B R. Semisolid Dosages: Ointments, Creams, and Gels[J]. Pharmaceutical Sciences Encyclopedia: Drug Discovery, Development, and Manufacturing, 2010: 1-46.
  3. Bharat P, Paresh M, Sharma R K, et al. A review: Novel Advances in Semisolid Dosage Forms & Patented Technology in Semisolid Dosage Forms[J]. Int. J. PharmTech Res, 2011, 3: 420-430.
  4. Maqbool A, Mishra M K, Pathak S, et al. Semisolid Dosage Forms Manufacturing: Tools, Critical Process Parameters, Strategies, Optimization, and Recent Advances[J]. Indo Am J Pharm Res, 2017, 7: 882-93.

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